Application (Layer 7)
This layer supports application and end-user processes. Communication partners are identified, quality of service is identified, user authentication and privacy are considered, and any constraints on data syntax are identified. Everything at this layer is application-specific. This layer provides application services for file transfers, e-mail, and other network software services. Telnet and FTP are applications that exist entirely in the application level. Tiered application architectures are part of this layer.
Presentation (Layer 6)
This layer provides independence from differences in data representation (e.g., encryption) by translating from application to network format, and vice versa. The presentation layer works to transform data into the form that the application layer can accept. This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network providing freedom from compatibility problems. It is sometimes called the syntax layer.
Session (Layer 5)
This layer establishes, manages and terminates connections between applications. The session layer sets up, coordinates, and terminates conversations, exchanges, and dialogues between the applications at each end. It deals with session and connection coordination.
Transport (Layer 4)
This layer provides transparent transfer of data between end systems, or hosts, and is responsible for end-to-end error recovery and flow control. It ensures complete data transfer.
Network (Layer 3)
This layer provides switching and routing technologies, creating logical paths, known as virtual circuits, for transmitting data from node to node. Routing and forwarding are functions of this layer, as well as addressing, internetworking, error handling, congestion control and packet sequencing.
Data Link (Layer 2)
At this layer, data packets are encoded and decoded into bits. It furnishes transmission protocol knowledge and management and handles errors in the physical layer, flow control and frame synchronization. The data link layer is divided into two sub layers: The Media Access Control (MAC) layer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. The MAC sub layer controls how a computer on the network gains access to the data and permission to transmit it. The LLC layer controls frame synchronization, flow control and error checking.
Physical (Layer 1)
This layer conveys the bit stream – electrical impulse, light or radio signal — through the network at the electrical and mechanical level. It provides the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier, including defining cables, cards and physical aspects. Fast Ethernet, RS232, and ATM are protocols with physical layer components.
2. WAN Technology
a network that covers a broad area (i.e., any telecommunication network that links across metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries) using private or public network transports
PPP And Frame Relay
PPP: In networking, the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a data link protocol commonly used in establishing a direct connection between two networking nodes. (Resource: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Point-to-Point_Protocol)
Frame Relay: Frame Relay is a standardized wide area network technology that specifies the physical and logical link layers of digital telecommunications channels using a packet switching methodology. (Resource: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frame_Relay)
3. DNS [Domain Name System]
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchial distributed naming system for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network
.com, .gov, .org
.com: The domain name com is a top-level domain (TLD) in the Domain Name System of the internet. Its name is derived from the word commercial, indicating its original intended purpose for domains registered by commercial organizations (Resource: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/.com)
.gov: The domain name gov is a sponsored top-level domain (sTLD) in the Domain Name System of the internet. The name is derived from government, indicating its restricted use by government (Resource: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/.gov)
.org: The domain name org is a generic top-level domain (gTLD) of the Domain Name System (DNS) used in the Internet. The name is truncated fromorganization. (Resource: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/.org)